Velkomnir, gestir mínir!
(Welcome, my guests!) 🧙🏻‍♂️

This part of the Hall contains basic information regarding five runic alphabets, which are named based on their time, place, and first six runes (futhark, futhorc, futhork, etc.). It is important to keep in mind that runes were generally meant to be written based on sounds, not letters. If you encounter an inscription, keep that in mind, since the spelling you end up with will correspond to the sound of a word rather than the invented standard that most folk get used to seeing. Furthermore, while I have included the common languages used for each runic alphabet below, runes can, in theory, be used for any language, so long as they correspond to the general sounds expected from each rune. While runes work best for the Germanic languages that originally used them, they are alphabets, not a language in-and-of itself. If someone here in the Hall would like to compose something in runes, keep these things in mind — and do carve with caution. This page will not provide anyone with the skills needed for confident rune-carving, but it will familiarize folk with what sounds each rune roughly reflects in the latin alphabet that many are accustomed to.

That said, I have drawn this information from two sources, although the first has certainly been employed more so than the second: Michael P. Barnes’ Runes: A Handbook and Jesse L. Byock’s Viking Language 1. I also advise the guests of this Hall to rummage through Thorraborinn’s Runic Resources page. There are quite a few helpful resources there that are worth investigating!



Dates: c. 100 — 700 AD
Language: North Germanic languages

 ᚨ  ᚱ  ᚲ  ᚾ  ᛁ  ᛃ  ᛇ  ᛒ  ᛚ  ᛜ  ᛟ
 f u þ a r k g w h n i j æ p z s t b e m l ng o d



Dates:  c. 450 — 1000 AD
Languages: Old English; Old Frisian

f u þ o r c g w h n i j (i) p x s t b e m l ng d œ a æ y ea



Dates: c. 700 — 1100 AD
Language: Old Norse

 f u/v/o/y/ø/w þ/ð a/o/ǫ r k/g h n i/e/æ/j a s t/d b/p m l R



Dates: c. 900 — 1100 AD
Language: Old Norse

       ᚭ        ᛆ  ᛌ  ᛐ  ᛓ  ᛙ    ᛧ
 f u/v/o/y/ø/w þ/ð a/o/ǫ r k/g h n i/e/æ/j a s t/d b/p m l R



Dates: c. 1100 — 1500 AD (but some inscriptions are later)
Languages: Old Norse-Icelandic; Latin; Old Swedish, Old Norwegian, Old Danish

 ᚮ   ᛌ/ ᚤ/ᛦ ᛌ/ ᛔ/ᛕ
 f u þ o r k h n i a s t b m l y v ð g e æ c/z d p ø/ǫ


If you discover something wrong with this page, please contact me at (and please do include a citation for the correction so that I may check the accuracy of the revision, as well as include the information on this page for others!)